Sunday, March 31, 2019
Dexter Opening Sequence AnalysisIn this as bell ringerment, I analyse Dexters opening period by employing semiotical tools and interpret the think heart and soul in the polysemic subscribe tos which grit to the inexplicit tie-ins in the narrative structure of this generic school textual matter.I contribute opted to transportation system out a semiotic analysis of Dexters opening credits that airs on premium cable, Showtime. In order to develop an unequivocal semiotic analysis, the marrow of the terms and antithetical aspects of semiology must be made clear. There is a set of analytic tools engagementd to examine a media text such as a abbreviate, a soma and a mean, iconic, indexical, symbolic, polysemic, intertexuality, codes, paradigms and syntagms. Semiotics is the study of how signals make meaning while a sign could be anything that represents something else. The signifier is the sign itself and the horse sense refers to the mental concept. Iconic describes a sign which resembles the signified whereas Symbolic refers to a sign which does not resemble the signified precisely is purely conventional. indexical represents a sign which is innately connected in some focusing to the signified. Paradigm refers to a set of signs that atomic number 18 put together to own meaning. Syntagm, on the other hand, is the term apply to describe the construction of a sequence of signs in a particular carnal knowledgeship to ace another. A media text containing homoy meanings is known as polysemia and its existence in relation to other media texts is c completelyed intertexuality. Now it is feasible to delve into the semiotic analyses of Dexters opening sequence as the basic terms of the semiotics be comprehensible.One of Barthes arguments in Rhetoric of the Image is that all images are polysemous they imply, underlying their signifiers, a floating chain of signifieds, the reader able to choose some and burn others (1977, p.32-55). The narrativ e structure of the opening is filled with polysemic codes where the paradigm of signs are unite to show a hu humannessity going with his dawn routine, the adaptation of the coded message actually convey a different meaning depending on the analysis of the syntagmatic relations of the signifiers. The signifiers not only represent their wing but withal contain malicious belligerent intensions leading the reference to an entirely different signifieds or notion of discernment based on their construal.The genre is the crime and suspense drama series as the use of verbal magniloquence and paradigm is particular of this type of generic text. The human action scene of Dexter is a complex combination of signs where every piece is signifying the message of murder. This vox populi is supported by Fiske (1990, p.40) who states The conveyance of messages takes place through the development and use of codes, the form and existence that these take depends on the smart set and culture w ithin which they operate. The line of products drops are an indexical sign which has connotation of murder. The title Dexter is an iconic linguistic sign written with declivity stains spewed across it. The typography is indicative of murder and crime, using the Soda hand font in red which is yet another signifier. It contains implicit cheer as its signifieds are danger and devil that is usually depicted as contorted red and wearing a red costume in both iconography and popular culture. Further association of the red colour sign connotes to the phrase caught red-handed, meaning either caught in an act of crime or caught with the pedigree of murder still on ones hands. It also sets a step of violence which could be interpreted as a signifi passelt distinction of the show. By deciphering these codes we can construe the intend meaning of the media text. In regards to coded messages Robert Innis (1986, HYPERLINK http//www.aber.ac.uk/media/Documents/S4B/sem13.htmlInnis_1986p.88) writes that an joint code has a vocabulary of basic units together with syntactical rules which can be used to generate larger meaningful combinations.The very premiere crap-shooter in the opening scene shows a mosquito sucking blood out of the mans arm that he then slaps and kills. The mosquito is a signifier and signified is it sucks blood. It denotes to the viewer that killing a mosquito is good. The close up facial aspect of the man is a presentational code after he kills the mosquito a subsequent self-satisfied smile spreads on his nerve. When you interpret the coded message existence used you get a suggestive implication that this is a man who likes killing or that is how he starts his cursory routine. The narrative structure of the text also employs syntagmatic value by the linking of signs from paradigm sets for an intended meaning. The one scene shows the man using a dental floss which is a signifier and its extensional of removing food and dental plaque from teeth . He wraps it some his fingers tightly that we can see the fingers areas turn white which connotes to his use of specialization and force. In the next shot we see a close up of his neck which consists of syntagmatic relationship signifying connotative aspect if we compare it with front and following shots. Subsequently the next coded message is a close up shot showing a rope swaddled around the hands that is being pulled making the blood rush to the sides and turning the area around the ropes on his hands turn white. These syntagmatic signs consist of coded message and rely on the intertextuality of the text. Kristeva referred to texts in terms of two axes a horizontal axis connecting the origin and reader of a text, and a vertical axis, which connects the text to other texts (1980, p.69). The interpretations of the meaning of these juxtaposed coded signs rely on the readers previous experience of seeing strangulation scenes in other texts. After examination and coalesces of t he signifiers and signifieds in the following shots, its denotative of a man clearly tying his shoes in the morning.The esthetic codes and conventions used to show a close up shot of a grapefruit being sliced contains polysemic signs. The paradigm method in which the slowly motion and graphic slicing of the grapefruit splatters the juice is denotative but also operates indexically indicative of blood spatter at a connotative level. The utmost(prenominal) close up shot of the grapefruit is a sign which resembles distorted flesh. The close up scene of opening the shower unserviceable with force making a fist and the shot of his biceps are metonyms of his vengeful personality which signifies his use of force, strength and power. There is an extreme close up shot of slicing of the meat which is still wrapped in a plastic bag connotes to a corpse in a bag. In this context, signifiers not only represent denotation but also carry connotation leading the audience to different signifieds .The visual rhetoric of the man when he is looking at himself through the mirror is a muddled close up shot which is an artifice of connotation. With regard to media artefacts Long and seawall (2009, p.40) stated that a text is manufactured or constructed out of elements of run-in and existing meanings. The deliberate blurring of his reflection on the mirror presents us with a constructed signifier. The blur is a symbolic sign which distorts the vision, making it harder to identify anything or anyone. The blur could signify the mans secrete persona as his facial features are obscured. Furthermore, it connotes to the implication that he is hiding a dark secret or his true self and does not want to be perceptible. Serial killers are invisible they look like anyone else is, they could be anyone else.At the denotative level of the syntagmatic structure of the scenes we see the man simply putting a white t-shirt on, however, these coded signifiers also guts to the connotative signifi ed. The codes and conventions employed anchor to the intended meaning thus exhibit manageable polysemia of the signs. The polysemic visual signifier is a symbolic close up shot of the mans organization where he is pulling the t-shirt tightly over his head which provides anchorage to the connotative association of a bag over a suffocation victim. The conventions used to provide a connotational framework at this echelon is a heathenish code. The big close up shot of his face is an indexical sign and denotative of him trying to catch his breath and reinforces the polysemic connotation of suffocation. The polysemic analysis of the contours of his face emerging from behind the stretching fabric could be interpreted as him being the victim or his close connection with the murder or crime. The purposely use of the signs has connotative implications that he could be a victim or he could be a criminal and predator who commits the murders. At a mythic level we understand this sign as pio neer the myth of murderers Most killers lead lives that appear normal to anyone in the ecumenical public. Connotatively, the semiotic analysis of these coded signs interpret the simple relatable morning rituals of the man who takes pleasance in cutting into objects and cooking things that could have been alive signify the trance he gets in killing living and non-living things e.g mosquito, fruit, meat. The narrative structure of this text is a superb paradigm composition of signifiers and signifieds that has polysemic signs which once decoded connotes to menacing and foul meaning.The rhetorical manner in which he holds his neck in the paring scene is a symbolic sign containing coded message of strangulation. The drops of blood from the g room accident are signifiers and the implication of murder is signified. Subsequent combining of signifiers and signifieds in a sequential close up shots denotes to a man take in an omelette which also anchors to the connotative meaning of the signifiers. The razor- sapiently spit he uses to slice the omelette is a signifier. Even the black colour of the sharp knife is a coded signifier. We can interpret the polysemic meaning of the metaphorical sign of knife taking into account that it is not a bread knife which is generally used. The knife symbolises murder and the colour black stands for death, enigma, and pain. The red naiant is a signifier and the cetchup is signified. However, employing analytical tools of semiology we can interpret the connotative meaning of calculated use of the fluid to represent blood. The use of ketchup instead of mayonnaise or sauce is a premeditated sign. The signs have connotation of obsession with blood of the main type of the show which signifies that he could be a killer or he is closely associated with the blood and criminal activities. Moreover the analysis of indexical sign of blood epitomise the symbol of life or of taking it.The close up shot towards the end is a signifier where we get to see the clear view of Dexters face for the first time which abstracts him from the context and places the main focus on his face and presentational rhetoric of the text. The facial expression on his face is denotative and also connotes to a disturbing underlining meaning as he looks us in the eye. The shot lingers for just a little too long which provokes uncomfortable and agitated reaction and connotes that the man is hiding a dark secret. The suggestive sly smile spreads on his face that connotes his devious, fell and cunning personality traits. It also connotes to the ability of the man to present himself as a normal face to the world but underneath he knows he is hiding his true nature from the world.The most common rhetorical sound to accentuate character personality or emotion is medicine. (Sonnenschein 2001). In this generic text, the presentational rhetoric is employed in encoding the non-diegetic euphony to convey the connotative meaning of playfulness and omi nous. The music and digenetic sound bring up emotional and dramatic reaction through a combination of its elements rhythm, melody, chords and instrumentation. The music signifier contains sassy and opprobrious horns that punctuate the visual signs in the paradigmatic narrative structure to direct our attention and induce particular meaning. For typesetters case the blood drops falling on the sink which connotes to a more sinister meaning in this context. This clearly relates to the Saussurean analytical division of the sign into a sound-image (signifier) and the mood of the generic text is signified. This notion is further supported by Cook (1998, p.8) who writes By working with the image the sound seeks to explain the events, emotions and meaning, to transfer its clarity of meaning to the other. The diegetic environmental sounds aid in accentuating the actions of the character and anchor to the connotative meaning of the signifiers. The music and sound are very flourishing in p roviding a multi-accentuate meaning to the text which connotes to the menacing, sinister, mysterious and ambiguous characteristics of the man and the generic text.Gibbs (2002, p.82) articulates Mise-en-scne enables you to anchor your understanding of a film In this text mise-en-scne of the narrative structure of get offing, actor, cinematography and camera makes possible a series of suggestive meanings. The careful use of paradigm and syntagm in the narration abet us to decode the connotative association and experience nonliteral meaning as well as literary one. The paradigm use of graphic and gritty nature of close up shots in the entire narrative anchors to the connotation of intimacy, closeness, asphyxiatation, leaving no room for the viewer to breath. With regard to Close-Up shot frames Munsterberg (1970, p.33) writes The close-up heightens the vividness of that on which our mind is concentrating on. Editing, extreme CU frames, lighting, sound, and swiftness of the images revea l polysemia with notion of perception. Every signifier is polysemic, emotionally poignant and revealing. The indication of fear, concealment and murder is the ultimate goal of each(prenominal) scene.The intensity, saturation, hue and depth of colours play a significant economic consumption in the syntagmatic structure of the text anchoring to dark, mysterious, fiend mood. The enhancement of the colour red directs our attention on this particular element of the composition and also connotes to a more sinister meaning. The long shot of the man when he is leaving is a sign and alteration in the tone of the light also has polysemic meaning as it renders our own notion of vision (and judgement) as unreliable or at least top dogable. The purpose of the change in the lighting signifies that the man leads a bifurcate life or he has two personalities. When he is alone in his room he is himself as the tone of colours are saturated presenting a darker and baleful proneness of the man. But once he is outside the use of cheerful morning bright colours reinforces the connotation of the man leading a double life and keeping a secret. The nod he gives to the camera or audience is a sign which signify his acknowledgement that we know his secret. The question arises that if he is portrayed as an antihero seeing that he is the main character of the show and has connotation of close associated of blood and murder. It also fortifies the myth of killers that the murderers could be anyone at all and are quite indistinguishable from ordinary masses as we see the narrative structure following the man doing daily rituals with polysemic relationship. (Cameron Elizabeth 1987)The rich use of symbolic metonymies in the narrative structure to ready malevolent connotations out of a denotatively peaceful routine which we can all relate to makes this media text fascinating to analyse semiotically. The codes and conventions used in the rhetoric construe syntagmic relationship which inst antly conveys one sign or denotation to the audience but semiotic analysis of these signs decipher the true intended meaning. At the connotation level all the visual symbols are interacting to fashion a sinister, darker, destructive notion of perception which insinuates murder.REFERENCESBarthes, Roland (1977), The Rhetoric of the Image in Heath, Stephen (Trans) Image, Music, Text. unused York Hill and Wang. pp. 32-51Innis, Robert E. (1986), Semiotics An Introductory Reade. London Hutchinson. pp. 88Kristeva, Julia (1980), liking in Language A Semiotic Approach to Literature and Art. sensitive York Columbia University Press. pp.69Long, Paul and Wall, Tim (2009), Media Studies Texts, Production and Context. England Longman. pp. 40Sonnenschein, David (2001), Sound Design The communicatory Power Of Music,Voice and Sound Effects in Cinema. USA Michael Wiese. pp. 178Saussure, Ferdinand de (1974), Course in General Linguistics. London Fontana. pp. 128Cook, Nicholas (1998), Analysing Mu sical Multimedia. London Oxford University Press. pp.8Gibbs, John (2002), Mise-en-scne sprout Style And Interpretation. London Wallflower Press. pp.82Munsterberg, Hugo (1970), The Film A Psychological Study. New York Dover Publications. pp.33Cameron, Deborah and Frazer, Elizabeth (1987), The Lust To Kill. Cambridge Polity Press. pp.158
Arthropod Ectoparasites in CatsCHAPTER 2LITERATURE reappraisal2.1Origin of cat domesticationThe domestic cat Felis catus was originated from the savage cat species, Felis silveteris which distributed from Europe, Middle East, parts of Asia and throughout the Africa continent (Garman, 2000). Cats were scratch line taming in Egypt more or less 3 600 twelvemonths ago (Serpell, 1988 Coleman et al., 1997) but the late finding suggests that the domestication took place earlier in the Fertile, Cres centime well-nigh 10 000 years ago.Cats can be categorised into troika groups match to where and how they live. The groups argon domestic pet cats, free roaming stray cats and feral cats. interior(prenominal) pet cats be those owned by humans and their resources atomic yield 18 provided by the owners, stray cats be not owned and they freely move however, they ar still depending on resources supply by human, meanwhile the feral ar those that live and reproduce in the wild and hunt ing for their resources and needs.In Malaysia, or so household owned at least one cat as a pet and the cat populations number increases each year (Bedi, 2011). Average animals received monthly be between 600 700 animals as account by The Society of Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (SPCA) Malaysia.2.2The host ( seethe cats)Stray cats atomic number 18 free ranging cats and can be found in and around the cities, towns, rural properties and they are homeless. They are not owned however, they return to human habitation (Ogan and Jurek, 1997) since they are depending on resources that supply by human.Stray cats could as well as define as those that escaped home and unable to return or an abandoned cat that seeks its shelter. According to Holton (2007) if a stray cat natural in the wild, it can be considered as feral which the free ranging number of the domestic cat. Domestic cats lifespan as pets are between 15 to 17 years. However for stray cats, estimated time of vitality is o nly between 4 to 5 years (Ogan and Jurek, 1997).Stray cats are usually found in contact with human kind and soft seen foraging for food around the areas where food is abundant such as markets, food courts, on the streets and around the cities. These cats are unc everyplaceed to numerous types of patrimonial pathogens such as rabies, toxoplasmosis and toxocariasis. Stray cats are also good vectors to bloodsuckingal organism that are transmittable which can be potentially legal transfer harm to humans health. about ectoparasites can cause jumble lesions that are accompanied by pruritus, erythema, excoriation, papules and crusts (Wall, 2007) after fed on animals and as well as on human.2.3Arthropod EctoparasitesThe phylum arthropoda contains over 85 per cent of all know species of animal. Most common arthropod ectoparasites that associated with cats are from class class class Insecta and class Arachnid. Arthropoda is a Geek word arthros which means a joint and podos means foot. Three basic characteristics of the Arthropods fit appendages, segment physical structure and external skeleton.The entire body is cover with a tough flake off called cuticle which in parts is chemically hardened to form a protective exoskeleton. The in truth simple heart is dorsal, whereas the ganglionated nerve cord is adaxial but in the head region it connects to a dorsal gigantic ganglion, much called the brain. The body cavity called coelom, which is the space between the alimentary television channel and body wall, is often called a haemocoele because it contains the arthropods blood (Macmillan, 1980)Arthropod ectoparasites occupy a major impact on husbandry, productivity and welfare of domestic animals (Colebrook and Wall, 2004). Arthropod ectoparasites have strong association with their hosts, they are blood-sucking organisms which live and feed on nutrient-rich fluids that are offered by vertebrates and also may become opportunistic feeder on human.2.4Physiology and pathogenicity of ectoparasitic arthropodsThe small, complex, mobile arthropods usually have a short life, but their populations are maintained at a high level because of the large number of offspring and a short developmental period, usually a some days to a few weeks, although some species require a year or more. The great adaptability of arthropods is evidenced by the evolutionary changes which work to their advantage. Their jointed appendages enhance their capability for dispersal. The body covering of the terrestrial forms provides resistance to desiccation.The injuries produced by ectoparasitic arthropods are caused directly by the ectoparasite or indirectly by the transmission of disease organisms. Arthropods may cause injury or irritation through annoyance, blood loss, dermatitis, myiasis, envonomization, and allergy. Direct lesions result from the biting, sucking, stinging, or burrowing of the adult and im jump on parasites.2.5 Classification of Arthropod EctoparasitesPh ylum arthropoda (figure 2.5) classified to two classes, which are class Insecta and class Arachnida. Class Insecta that associated with this study is consist of two orders which are order Phthitraptera known as louse or lice and order Siphonoptera known as fleas. Meanwhile from class Arachnida, only subclass Acari that associated with this study. Subclass Acari consist of four orders which are order Prostigmata known as chiggers, order Astigmata known as fur mites, order Mesostigmata known as mites and lastly order Metastigmata which is known as ticks.2.5.1 Class InsectaComstock (1949) stated that there are twenty-six orders categorized under class Insecta. Of these, eight are known to be including parasitic species, while other orders may include incidental and accidental parasites. Members often characterized as tri-segmented bodies, into head, thorax and abdomen. All members have three pairs of legs and usually pairs of wings. Some insects such as fleas and lice are drop of wing s.2.5.2 Class ArachnidaGenerally, members are characterized as segmented body into two parts which are the cephalothorax and the abdomen. in that location are no antennae or wings. Most adults have eight legs save a few species of mites that only have one up to three pairs of legs (Roberts and Janovy, 2005) .Only subclass Acari that associated with domestic animal, which consists of Mites and Ticks. Acari divided into seven orders. Of these, four orders are known in parasitic species which are Prostigamata (Chiggers), Astigmata (Fur mites), Mesostigmata (Mites) and Metastigmata (Ticks).Mites have smaller size that enables them to occupy a very wide range of habitats. Most species are free surviving but there are also parasitic species living on plants or animals included invertebrates and vertebrates (Fain, 1994).Ticks are obligate blood-feeding parasites for cold and warm lusty vertebrates with a worldwide distribution (Cacho et al., 1994).2.6Common ectoparasites infesting cats and its distributionStray cats compensate infested with ectoparasites when they wander outdoors searching for food and nearly often exposed to accidental ingestion of parasites. Common ectoparasites that associated with cats include fleas, lice, mites and ticks. Previous studies in Malaysia reported parasites infecting the stray cat population from Peninsular Malaysia have given goodish data on the diversity and levels of infection (Lee et al., 1993)2.6.1 Fleas (Order Siphonaptera)Fleas have a segmented body divided into head, thorax and abdomen. For adult fleas, the thorax consists of six legs. Fleas are small approximately 1 8 mm yearn and sensationalistic brown to black wingless insects. Adult fleas are laterally form usually brown in colour and readily to jump (Gullan and Cranston, 2005).The most common and important cat flea is Ctenocephalides felis (figure 2.6.1). It is a ecumenical species and a pest in the urban environment. This species are ubiquitous throughout th e world wherever suitable host reside. It is laterally compressed, wingless, about 2mm long and reddish brown to black colour. It has sloping forehead, hind tibia which lacks an out apical tooth and coombs which differentiate it with other species. The male Ctenocephalides felis is fairly smaller than the female and has complex, snail shaped genitalia.Fleas undergo a effected lifecycle which consists of egg, larva, pupa and adult. Immature horizontal surfaces of flea do not resemble the adult and occupy very different ecological niches. On average an adult flea lives for 6 to 12 months and has been postulated to live for 2 years. A female adult flea can mature eggs and may lay 300 to 1000 eggs over its lifetimes in average 3 to 25 eggs per day, if it has access to its indigenous host. According to Rust and Dryden (1997), about 15 eggs fall into the realm or the carpet. The eggs then hatch and produce larvae that crawl in the environment to feed. Flea larvae are elongate, have no legs and are sparsely covered with long setae. They have small head with simple antennae but lack eyes. They feed on organic debris found in the approach or house of the host. The larva undergoes two moults before becoming the third stage larva before developing into a silken cocoon. It remains in the pupa for 1 to 2 weeks before the adult flea emerges spontaneously from the pupal case when they adept the presence of an appropriate host.
Saturday, March 30, 2019
Can The race finish off Be Explained Sociologically Criminology Essay go forth intellectually responsible definitions of these events, amicable scientists be in that locationfore capable of producing explanations that post both interpret and create to a lower placestanding. Their bat allows further reflection on the problem of explanations in sociological reach (Brget, 1963).This essay impart heighten on whether or non social scientists provide an explanation for racial extermination, in other watchwords whether or non race murder suffer be explained sociologically. The beginning and emergence of racial extermination is unkn declare nevertheless it is pretended that the number 1 racial extermination took place during the hunting and gathering period ( codswallop and Jonassohn, 1990). After agribusiness had been discovered there was a division in expression the world and it consisted of settlers and nomads. The settlers were h nonpareilst at gathering food and a involvement solutioned between the devil groups as the nomads would raid the settlers of their food, however they would not veil the settlers when doing so as they were lock in needed because the nomads planned to continue and raid the settlers in the feeler years. The settlers could not defend themselves due to lack of resources (Chalk and Jonassohn, 1990). As sentence progressed the settlers learnt how to mitigate their agriculture skills and their produce grew so well that they could support cities, rulers and armies. They became successful and laden and started to associate with trade and began to build empires and city secerns. As a result of this, conflict gibely grew over wealth, trade and trade routes. Wars were fought over this, and it was finished these fights that mickle realised their victories were temporary. It became clear that the lone(prenominal) way to mystify a guaranteed secure future was to eliminate those who were defeated completely. Thus the first motive for the first race murder appears to be elimination of either future threats (Chalk and Jonassohn, 1990). Genocide then grew and progressed from this.Genocide as defined by Lemkin (1944) who realms that it is the criminal tone to destroy or to cripple permanently a human group. The acts ar directed against groups as such, and individuals are selected for distraction entirely because they belong to these groups (Lemkin, 1944 p. 147). This is the description that the UN (United Nations) Convention on the prevention and punishment of the criminal offense of racial extermination relied upon (Andreopoulos, 1994). next this, social scientists have redefined the term race murder to suite their theoretical perspectives. The commentary of the UN convention however, remains the most popular and widely used. This is due to it creation a legally accepted and a workable rendering. Under the definition of the UN Convention, Genocide remains an external umbrage whet her perpetrate in cessation or war this arrangements that racial extermination is a uni resile phenomenon (Andreopoulos, 1994). Variations within genocide do exist, through its context and processes, for font, the distinction between domestic genocide and genocide done in international war. With domestic genocide, people have differences and conflicts within their own societies based on religious views, ethnicity and their race, while, with international war genocide, mass sidesplittings are perpetrate due to conflict between dickens separate grounds (Andreopoulos, 1994).Through the UN Genocide Convention, genocide was deemed the most horrendous crime of all time and individuals would then use it as the defence to any constellation of discrimination, trounceion and injustice (Martin, 2006). This resulted in disadvantaged groups trying to seduce sympathy by dramatizing their situations. For example, due to one of the articles of the convention, which claimed genocide inclu ded an design to prevent any birth, guide to claims that abortion clinics were a form of genocide. In truly much common terms if an individuals rights were violated, this would excessively be taken as genocide. The concept was clearly being abused, and the UN became more(prenominal) and more resistant to charges of genocide. This may have contributed to the need of re-definition of genocide. It is therefore important to reach a generic definition of genocide which should be consistent with the e preciseday use of the word so that when people see a mass murder the only word operable to them to describe such an event should be genocide (Chalk and Jonassohn, 1990).Sociologists are interested in genocide for many reasons as it will be discussed in the case studies below. These case studies are drawn upon to show one of the reasons as to why sociologists might want to explain genocide and why people act and behave in such a gruesome manner.The Jewish holocaust is one of the mo st popular and disreputable among all genocides, 6 million Jews were murdered by the Nazi politics and those who supported the regime. Despite the severity and scale of this genocide it was somewhat predicted or predetermined that it would be very important (Jones, 2011). During the rise of modernity, Jews did not equal in with the new modern slipway. They were seen as enemies of modernity. This resulted in some Jews desire integration and those who did were accepted by some European countries including Germany, who granted citizenship to the Jews from 1812. This then raised the question as to why Germany would turn on the Jews and murder them (Jones, 2011). The Jews lived peacefully in Germany up until the tragic and embarrassing loss of the low gear World War. This resulted in traditional forms of power falling and Germany needed to form and create a new identity if they were to survive the aftermath of the war, and so a slow drive towards nationalistic ideology was to eme rge. The political extremism led to the creation of NSDAP (political party) which was founded by Adolf Hitler. Hitlers vision was driven by his hatred for the Jews. at a time they reached a position of power, the Nazis were unstoppable and their purpose for the Jews was clear. The Jews were terrorised in many ways by the Nazis forcing most of them to flee the country while they still could and constrained them to abandon their homes, companies and wealth. However, the situation that many countries were not accepting Jewish refugees take to bet that more wanted to leave but only a few could go and most of those who stayed committed suicide out of fear of the social wipeout that the Nazi rule imposed on them (Melson, 1996).The confinement and consolidation of the Jews under the Nazi control emphasised the Nazi ideology and how it was based on a united and purified Germany, this concluded their movement. Two years after the Soviet Union invasion, 1.8 million Jews were rounded up an d gunned down (the holocaust by bullets) (Melson, 1996). To prevent any guilt and psychological trauma for German killers which resulted from the injection of women and children, concentration camps with gas chambers were introduced to maintain distance between the killers and the victims. active 1 million Jews were killed at one of the main killing centres virtually two million more died due to gas and also by other substance in the final stage camps. Similarly 1,890,000 Jews were slaughtered between the vanadium remainder camps that were set up in Poland. The camp system became very lethal for Jews. It became evident that the devotion to the elimination of the Jews was more important to the Nazis than their own self-preservation (Melson, 1996).The genocide in Rwanda was one of the most concentrated forms of mass killing ever seen approximately 1 million people (Tutsis and the Hutus who opposed the government) were killed in different ways over a course of twelve weeks. 800, 000 of the victims were killed within three to four weeks during the genocide. When taken into account the large amount of people killed in such a short time it is clear that the death rate was at least five times more than that of Nazi Germany. The Rwandan genocide resulted in successfully turning the mass population into murderers Hutu men, women and children were among the murderers (Jones. 2011). The genocide escalated due to the hot seatial plane that was shot down killing the president and many Hutu power radicals. It was assumed that surveying the incident the Tutsis would jump into power, however, the presidents death was blamed on Tutsi RPF officers (the Rwandan government denied the accusations) and the Hutus wanted revenge. The news of the attack was released approximately half an hour after it happened and the first few murders that the genocide was to follow only started taking place 10 hours after the announcement of the presidential death, this however, does not pr ove or show that the genocide was pre-planned by the Hutus (Mann, 2005).During the genocide there was no help or support from international leading they watched millions of innocent people die with no interference. When the genocide broke out, immaterial forces were sent into Rwanda, but only to evacuate whites. Following the evacuation of international citizens the UN Security Council focalizationed its attention on withdrawing the UNAMIR forces from the country. Rwanda was only able to live on on to 470 peacekeepers, these were still able to save lives during the course of the remainder of the genocide (Jones, 2011). The UN later voted to send more troops to Rwanda however the troops did not arrive in time, by the time help got to Rwanda the genocide was over. It was assumed that Rwanda was just not important enough to be rescued (Power, 2002). In 2004 the UN officially apologised for the lack of assistance for Rwanda and claimed that next time there would be an effective resp onse and this would be done in penny-pinching time (Power, 2002).Sociologists have tried to explain genocide sociologically by providing explanations as to why it might exist and how to stop it. Some of these explanations include Roger smiths disputation that genocide is an instrument of the modern state policy (Smith, 2010), while on the other hand, Helen Fein argues that these groups are murdered just so the states design for a new order is fulfilled (Fein, 1990). Similarly Leo Kuper argues that modern state monopoly creates both the desire and power to commit genocide (Kuper, 1983), while Horowitz much analogous Rubenstein argues that genocide is an act of state and as an act of state it is intended to be the main means of social control and this can only take place in a totalitarian state (Horowitz, 1976). Due to the vast majority of explanations, only a few will be looked at in a bit more detail. mavin of the most recent and controversial attacks to explain organised genoci de madness is that of the English sociologist Michael Mann, who links and explains genocide through democratisation processes. Manns main focus is on explaining the origins and continuous rise of genocide by looking at relations of political power in society. According to Mann, genocide is committed by groups that are manipulated by politicians and this causes an unfortunate disruption to social and political progress. Genocide is seen as not being different from modern ideologies as it is committed in the name of the people this is what Mann calls the dark side of body politic. The branch struggle and its institutions managed to restrain democracies from committing mass murder on its own citizens however, they still managed to commit purgatorials on groups defined as outside of the people. This meant that as democracy got stronger among the perpetrators, so did genocide. This is the first sense in which genocide was the dark side of democracy. Genocide is therefore modern becau se it was seen as the dark side of democracy. The fact that it is granted within democracy that the possibility that majority groups can oppress minorities creates more threatening consequences in certain types of multi-ethnic societies (Mann, 2005).Mann argues that a more adequate explanation of how and why genocide takes place is needed, so he creates a typology of the means of bloody cleansing. He distinguishes among different dimensions of cleansing associated with craze and illustrates that some types of violence are more likely than others to intensify. Among the three types of cleansing in the typology, most of them do not end in genocide but only the mildest types. The three types of cleansing include induced engrossment (the other seeks assimilation into the main group), induced immigration (offers incentives to the culturally akin groups) and induced emigration (this is rarely applied but it is advised by rightist nationalists). The escalation of these types of cleansi ng then goes as follows coerced assimilation (the other is strained to join the main group and abandon its own), biological assimilation (the minority is prevented from reproducing), coerced emigration (removal by force), deportation (removed by force from state territories), murderous cleansing (organised killings) and genocide (final escalation, deliberate attempt to wipe out constitutional populations) (Mann, 2005). It can be seen that most of the cleansings are mild in form and that the more murderous cleansings are uncommon. Many groups have tried to parry cleansing by assimilating into a nation state by changing their historical paths. Due to this Mann limits his analytical focus of murderous cleansings to very rare events in modern history in order to declaration the question why do such cleansings occur? (Mann, 2005).Rudolph Rummel contrasts Manns explanations, according to Rummel genocide depends on the authority of a state, the more authoritarian a state, the more lik ely it is to commit genocide. He argues that democracies do not commit genocide, there might be only a few cases in which genocide occurs within a democracy, however this only happens during wartimes, where mass murder is committed secretly with no participatory command. Rummel, however, fails to distinguish the more important cases of democratic mass murder such as the firebombing of Dresden and the issues in Tokyo. There were also authoritarian genocides that were committed in wartime with an attempt to secrecy for example Hitler and Stalin. Rummel acknowledges the birth between democracy and genocide however it is more complex and manifold edged than he explains (Rummel, 2004).Zygmunt Bauman also tries to explain genocide, much like Mann, he claims genocide is a modern phenomenon and tries to provide a sociological explanation as to why this is (Bauman, 1991). Bauman argues that genocide exists and is a modern phenomenon due to technology, only modern technology that is made a vailable to industrialised countries made it accomplishable for crimes such as genocide to occur. He also argues that conventional religion in modern societies have been silenced and replaced with its own definition of good and bad, this means individuals are no longer responsible for the greater good, but are responsible for abiding by laws. So it is within the pertly built systems of bureaucracy where responsibility is drawn from different sources that individuals commit genocide without having to turn to their morals as their evil actions or side is desensitised. It is therefore, according to Bauman, the emergence of modern technology and the growth of systems of bureaucracy and institutions that both prepares individuals and makes available to them the means to commit crimes such as genocide (Bauman, 1991). However this would mean that without the presence of these two conditions genocide would not occur but this is not the case. It is evident from the example of the holocaus t and other modern genocides such as Rwanda that genocide cannot depend on only two factors (Waller, 2002).Leo Kupers attempt to explain genocide is rooted from his early work in Africa and work on the plural society. He includes sociobiological and psychological theories within the general theory that he adopts to explain genocide. According to Kuper societies which are divided are the seedbed of genocide especially in times where groups battle for domination (Kuper, 1983). Furthermore, Kuper argues that genocide is not an unstoppable consequence of every society as it results from peoples own decisions. Kuper goes on to identify other causes of genocide which for him include economic conflict and ideologies both of nationalism and of dehumanising people (Kuper, 1983).Chalk and Jonassohn (1990) also accept that one of the main preconditions of genocide is the idea of devaluing the victims and identifying them as the other and unequal to the governing population. They take a histor ical based view to explaining a commixture of genocide civilisations and settings. They acknowledge the fact that it is not easy for people to kill defenceless victims and so it is evident that to commit genocide authority and a quasi- bureaucratic organisation are needed, this then makes genocide a crime of state (Chalk and Jonassohn, 1990). Through this, it is shown that genocide serves the interest of the state, leading social classes and the elites. Chalk and Jonassohn (1990) show that the first few types of genocide were used to build empires, for example the Mongols and Shaka Zulus empire. For Chalk and Jonassohn, these explanations are mainly for modern genocides for example the Jewish, Armenian and Kampuchean genocides but they provide no general explanation for other forms of genocide (Chalk and Jonassohn, 1990). These explanations of genocide help to reflect on the contemporary condition, this enables the consideration of ways to prevent such crimes in the future and how to deal with the aftermaths.Explaining genocide is like an attempt to account for a phenomenon seen beyond a constructive compass of social structure. It is important to explain such an event as no two events are the same, some only happen once. Therefore explaining these events means many are then available to compare and provide a more secure footing of the matter, in this case the explanations of genocide. Genocide argued by some to be a modern phenomenon has been explained by many social scientists and though some of these explanations are similar, no two are merely the same. Some of these explanations provide a very significant contribution to the sociological explanation of genocide and some of these explanations remain highly debatable and repugn however, they provide a framework for which explanation in sociological work can be explored.
Friday, March 29, 2019
Contrast And Compargon Two Different fiestas tourism EssayAccording to oxford dictionary the definition of fete is A serial of distinct types of performances which includes film show, music, dance, fair and so forth And it also occurs in the comparable place and the same day in once a year. fiesta is that things which is the aspect of a country. Its standing for passel amusements and the historical background of a country. Festival is organized by passel or group or organization.Different kinds of fiestas atomic number 18 found in a country much(prenominal) as cultural fete, local fete, national festival, ritual festival etc. cultural festival is very important festival. It represents the grow and heritage of integrity country. Now questions can arise that what is cultural festival, how people take note it, and so on. For giving the answers of these questions I have discrete to deal two different countriess and find out the cultural festival of these countries and al so try to hold up a compargon and contrast of these two festival to show the differences and similarities.Countries that I chooseFor making contrasts and comp ars of two different festivals I have choose two different countries for this purpose. The countries are Oman and Italy.OmanOman is an Asian country. Its situated in the mediate of Asia. It has many cultural contents which make Oman cryptic and for a broad affluent of cultural contents Oman is also kn own as the culture capital of the Arabian world..ItalyItaly is a European country. Its located in south-central of Europe.Italy have many cultural ingredients which make Italy exceptional then former(a)s country.Festivals that I chooseOmanIn Oman the most regular, popular and significant festival is muscadel FESTIVAL.This festival is one of the traditionalistic festivals in Oman. The residences of muscatel eagerly live for this day in every year. with this festival people celebrate their cultural heritage.ItalyIn Italy t he most anticipate, common and popular festival is Venice festival. Its called in Italy (Carnevale di Venzia).Its an ancient festival of Italy. People all over the Italy wait for this festival very enthusiastically actually not only just Italian people nevertheless also the European people wait for this immobilize festival.Origin muscadel festivalThe origin of this festival is very significance. It starts in 1998 since then its going on very proudly. This festival established to contract back the cultural heritage of Omans people.Venice festivalThe Venice Festival is the most internationally known festival celebrated in Venice, Italy, as well as being one of the oldest. It begins in the 15th century. During the 1970s, the Italian government decided to accept back the history and culture of Venice, and sought to use the traditional Carnival as the centerpiece of their efforts.CompareSimilarities some(prenominal) were established to bring back the cultural legacy of their country. DissimilaritiesVenice festival is more ancient than muskat festival.Duration of these festivalsmuscat festival Its held in January of every year and proceed for a month.Venice festival its held in February of every year and continuing for a few(prenominal) days (10 or 14).CelebrationsMuscat festivalOmans people celebrate their festival very stunningly. On these days different types of performances held in Muscat. The list of performances is reason into Cultural Events, Desert Panorama, Family Village Events, Skill Shows and Events for Women.By performing on musics and dances many local and international artists increase the enchantment of this festival. Local artists ordinarily sing their folk songs and perform traditional dances.For adults people different types of programs are held by famous Omani and Arab intellectual. Like discussion and debate on earthly and environmental topics. There are also different artistic, educational workshop, parades, seminars, poetry readings, l iterary gatherings and exhibition.This festival is very welcome by children. Because of this festival they find enormous happiness. This is the colossal probability for them to enjoy and fulfill their wishes. Through this festival they can attend concert, plunk for show, theatres and so on.Venice festivalIn Venice festival people disclose masquerade costume to disguise themselves. as erosion masks hid any form of identity surrounded by social classes. By vesture mask people attend everywhere.Venice festival presents many so farts such as music, ballet, fireworks night, mardi gras, theatre and circus street funs all around the city.This is a festival for spending money. On this festival people spend a huge amount of money lavishly on the purpose of gambling and other worldly pleasure. For gambling many gamble boots are set up all over the streets.For represent exotic animals and bird many dens, boots are set up. In addition to jugglers and ropewalkers performing on the stre ets wine shops, restaurants, cafes and even brothels.For making this festival more attractive many contests are held for the participants and spectators along the way. Some of these include the Best Mask Contest for children and Music project Contests for local bands.CompareSimilaritiesBoth of these festivals represent the cultural view of their own country.Both of these festivals have the same entertaining sources such as concerts, theatres, game shows etc.DissimilaritiesIn Venice festival people have a big(p) chance to spend money lavishly but in Muscat festival people spend money but not as like as Italian people.The main attraction of Venice festival is to wear mask people wear their traditional mask for this festival but Muscat festival doesnt contain this type of thing.In Muscat festival there is a colony which represent the cultural heritage of Muscat but Venice festival dont include this type of thing.The main attraction of these festivalsVenice festival (Venitian mask)Ma sks have always been a central feature of the Venetian festival. The masks are created by specially appointed craftsmen called the Mask Makers. Wearing mask people come out down road for celebrating this festival.Muscat festival (Indigenous village)A massive heritage village is set up to showcase Omans rich traditions and heritage, and light is shed on Muscats history and its various arts and crafts. This village is known as Indigenous village. This village locates in the Qurum National Park. importation of this festivalVeniceThis festival has direful purpose and that is no difference between rich and poor. This discrimination is lapped by wearing musk.This festival also gives an opportunity to let go of everything and simply enjoy life like it was meant to be. alone among all the joyfulness of the masks, there sometimes appears a black mask of Death reminding people at the carnival that nothing lasts forever.OmanThis festival stands for people recreation and entertainment.This fe stival exposes the heritage and culture of Oman. And by this the new generations are able to take the savour of their countrys ancient culture and heritage.CompareSimilaritiesBoth of these are stand for entertaining people.Both of these festivals are stand for noble reason.DissimilaritiesVenice festival gives a great effort to remove social differences on the other hand Muscat festival emphasis on exposing their culture.On Venice festival people wear mask but Muscat festival people dont have to do this.Recently celebrated festivalsMuscatMuscat festival of 2007 was started on 1st January and goes on 2nd February. The theme of the festival was Living Culture and Family Fun. Every year this festival has its own theme. attribute 1 The logo of Muscat festivalFigure 2 Festival picture of children gamesOn this day different types of performances like Arab music performance, Indian music performance were held. For children and adult there were children and adult theatre. In tout ensemble t he festival was the for that time.VeniceVenice Carnival of 2007 was begun on 9th February and end on 20th and it was a successful festival. There were concerts, dances, games and so on. People had a great entertainment and fun..Figure1 people wearing withConclusion
search Into line grow Satisfaction Among NursesNurses in or so healthcargon facilities save whatsoever of the richlyest trains of adjudge patient contact of any employees. care for force plays an essential provide in achieving organisational goals and providing spunky quality c be to the community. Hospitals be outstanding health occupy and companionable system whither nurses are the cornerstones for their effectiveness and efficiency. to a greater extent(prenominal) of the nurses even take on the responsibilities of the medical exam supervisors or the doctors in command, and this makes them a very all-important(a) part of the medical system (International Council for Nurses, 200) Devoid of people, brass sections brush off not reach their goals. (Drucker, 1999).High nurse perturbation score rove can pretend controvertly on an organizations capacity to meet patient withdraw and run quality interest (Gray and Phillips, 1996 Tai et al., 1998 Shields and Ward, 2001). At the nursing unit level, high disorder affects the morale of nurses and the productivity of those who remain to provide care spot new staff members are hired and orientated (Cavanagh and Cofn, 1992 Sofer, 1995). Jones (1990a, b) dened nursing overturn as the process whereby nursing staff ensue or communicate within the hospital setting. This denition Includes authorityal and un headingal, as head as sexual and external employee overthrow rates. Voluntary and involuntary turnovers are not always magisterial in studies because costs are incurred regardless of whether staffs resign or are requested to guide. check to L.J. Hayes et al(2008) turnover is a product of stage business happiness and cargo and can bleed to nursing famine.Nursing shortage and high rates of nurses turnover has become a prevalent globular issue (Kingman, 2001). The nursing shortage has a vital effect on healthcare system because of its negative impact on both(prenominal) hitch and curative care. For example, in developing countries, fewer nurses have been on hand(predicate) for providing immunizations and antepartum care. Hospitals in many industrialized and developing countries have been forced to dear units when nursing staff has not been available (Oulton, 2006,cited in sianze,Malvarez (2008).Shortages can be a symptom of busted personal credit line enjoyment, shortsighted management and drop of organizational support (Zurn et al., 2005). Shortages are coreing in heavy peeload, which is a herald to mull over stress, and burnout, which have also been linked to low clientele ecstasy. Nurses trick pleasure is an elusive concept, which is defined within its extrinsic and intrinsic determine (Cowin, 2002 cited in Masroor A.M., Fakir M. J 2010). Job propitiation is an essential component that has strong effects on patient safety, productivity, and surgical operation, quality of care, retention and turnover (Cavanagh and Cofn, 1992 B legen, 1993 Irvine and Evans, 1995, Murrells, T., et al, 2007). Job delight refers to over solely confident(p) feelings towards a ruminate. It is defined as, sweet or positive excited state resulting from the appraisal of ones argumentation experiences (Locke, 1976). What in terms of work triumph counts the attitude of an employee towards his telephone line? Attitude is a point of view of an individual towards an object. The object may be anything, such as, an organization, a manager, a colleague or a business. What is important roughly attitude is that people make finishs based on their attitudes.When employees are satisfy with their logical argument, they tend to stay in their job. On the other hand, people who are not comfortable with their job tend to take a decision of part withting their subject field. Workers with positive attitude are wantly to be productive and effective in the organization whereas those with negative attitude have despicable exercise and ultimately less productive (Abu Ajamieh, A. R, 1996). Satisfied employees tend to be to a greater extent productive, creative, and committed to their industry, and recent studies have shown a cover relation betwixt staff gratification and patient atonement in health care organizations (Al-Aameri, 2000). The entire employee wants to be slaked at their job no consider what activities they are engaged in or have the pull up stakes to turn back out. The significance of job contentment arises from the fact that the nurses whom job merriment is positive are not only pleased and happy within themselves only also affecting the quantitative and qualitative outcomes of the health organization in a positive way. Quite the opposite, the disgruntled nurses are not peacefully pleasured resulting in poor performance, change magnitude absenteeism, tardiness, burnout, turnover and qualitative and quantitative negative outcomes for the health care system.Nurses shortage and Job satisfa ction should be of primary coil touch ons to the health managers because nurses take the responsibility of many positions in the hospital and their turnover would have great impact on the employers and the patients as well. The shortage of nurses has been well recognized and extended to the long-term care religious services (Fletcher, 2001 Mark, 2002 Mitchell, 2003) Cited in MH 2008. In response population growth, health care organizations are facing problems in finding and keeping skillful nurses (Gohen Van Nostrand, 1995 Kassner Bertel, 1998). High nurse turnover and vacancy rates are affecting access to health care (Best Thurston, 2004) Cited in MH 2008. Continuously hiring new staff is costly and re watercourse turnover influence the morality of nurses and vitiates patient care (Sofie, Belzar, Young, 2003) Cited in MH 2008. The increasing rate of turnover resulted in unfavorable physical and emotional effects on nursing home residents, break awaying to a greater incidence of falls, medication errors, fear and anxiety, and feelings of hopelessness (Best Thurston, 2004 Sofie, Belza, Young, 2003).Background and significanceThere are cardinal governmental schools of nursing spread overall the get together Arab Emirates (UAE). Three of them are called Institutes of Nursing (IONs) governed by the Ministry of Health (MOH). The IONs offer a Diploma pointedness and cover the Northern Emirates. While the Higher College of Technology and the Institute of use Technology which are controlled by the Ministry of Higher Education in both of Abu-Dhabi and Al-Ain graduate nurses holding Bachelors degree of nursing science. The period of speculate in the IONs is three grades. All of the graduates are female Emiratis and expatriates and the number of graduates in the federal official emirates is relatively higher that of Abu-Dhabi and Al-Ain cities.Despite all such number of graduates, the UAE like the other countries is in severe shortage of nurses carry ond to high rate of turnover. The UAE is need for 30,000 nurses and midwives, only 23000 are available which means that the shortage is 7000 (Underwood, M, 2010). concord to the MOH-secretary of the Nursing and Midwifery Council, low remuneration, low status and limited life history development are all divisors influencing the shortage. Therefore, the UAE must hire up to 25 to 30 per cent 7000 nurses to overcome the shortage of nursing staff. Dr. Rifaai (2010), the Head of Federal Nursing Department, referred the shortage of nurses and midwives in the UAE to the apprehendd low status of the profession. The Emirati nurses accountancy only 4% of the total population (UAE-MOH, cited Underwood, M, 2010) which does not run in parallel with the demographics population of the country.The serious nursing shortage has prompted the MOH-UAE to start a national hear to identify the factors that could lead to a better take a leakplace at the governmental hospitals. This study was in response to a previous(prenominal) pilot study funded by the Ministry of Health called Thinking Magnetism which revealed that low wages and Lack of autonomy to make decisions are the primary yard for nurses dissatisfaction (Khaleej Times, 23 November 2009). The outcomes of the study drove the government to start looking carefully after these phenomena particularly when the pilot study, the magnet indicators showed very low stacks for ministry hospitals as examined with USA magnet hospitals. The indicators analyse nursing contribution in hospital affairs nursing anchoration of quality of care energy of nurse manager, leadership staffing resources and nurse-physician relationship. Among the 14 urgent requirements identified, the pilot study recommended parttime jobs flexible enlisting publicity policies, and competitive salaries. Involvement in decision-making and rise of a healthy nurse-physician relationship was also suggested. Expatriate nurses on the job(p) in the government hos pitals demanded equal treatment with UAE nationals and placements according to qualifications. Suliman, A.B., (2006), stated in his study that staffs perceptions of fairness are largely based on comparison. For instance, employee may compare their liquidatement, working hours, and incentives. If the comparison is positive, they are likely to feel positive toward their organization. Conversely, if the result is negative, they forget react negatively toward the system and may challenge and contrast it. Consequently, the employees may intent to quit their job.The finding of this study may assist the health care managers and policy makers to develop and institutionalize targeted nurse recruitment and retention strategies by taking into consideration the predictors of nurses dissatisfaction and turnover.The significance of the problem and the absence seizure of associate seekes and statistical data to the highest degree the level of nurses satisfaction, and the factors that sup ply to turnover give the urge to study these phenomena.Statement of PurposeThe aim of this research is to Explore the relationship among job dissatisfaction and turnover among registered nurses in the governmental hospitals of UAE.Find relationship between individual/ demographic variable quantitys and job satisfaction among the registered nurses in the Governmental hospital in the UAE.Give the nursing managers in the UAE hospitals clear indicators towards improving the nurses job satisfaction, retention and reduction of turnover rates.Research questionsThis research is intended to answer the following questionsWhat is the relation between dissatisfaction factors to turnover?What is the relationship between demographic variables and job satisfaction?Literature check intoTheoretical FrameworkJob satisfaction is multi-faceted with many definitions and theoretical frames. According to Spector (1997), Job satisfaction is the most important variable that is frequently studied in organ izational behavior research. In addition, the fundamental variable in both research and theory of organizational phenomena were ranging from job design to supervision. Moreover, the traditionalistic model of job satisfaction focuses on all the feelings that an individual has about his/her job. Yet, being satisfied or dissatisfied does not rely on the type of the job only but also on the expectations of the individuals from their job.In another definition, Job satisfaction is defined as the degree to which employees admire their jobs (McCloskey McCain 1987). Job satisfaction is an enjoyable affecting state resulting from the consideration of ones job (Locke, 1976 cited in Brief, A. P., Weiss, H. M. (2001) cited in Wikipedia), an emotional response to ones job (Cranny, Smith Stone, 1992 cited in Weiss, H. M. (2002) cited in Wikipedia) and an sentiment towards ones job (Brief, 1998 cited in Weiss, H. M. (2002) cited in Wikipedia).Researchers usually relate job satisfaction to mot ivation. need can be defined as an internal process that activates, guides and maintains behaviour over time (Pintrich 2003 Schunk 2000).There are several(prenominal) theories of motivation .The most important theories are Maslows hierarchy of ineluctably, Hertzbergs dual factor theory, and. Vrooms expectancy theory. Unfortunately, none of these theories have gained adequate support or shown to be valid as job satisfiers. Nevertheless, they are based on delicious human needs that address motivation.Maslows theory1954Maslow suggested a hierarchy of needs and cerebrate these needs to motivation. Maslow divided human needs into three categories, the deficiency needs (physical and psychological well being) , growth needs(knowing, appreciating, and understanding), and self actualization (ones potential). Maslow pointed out that individuals will not be motivated to the second need until the demands of the first need have been satisfied. Based on Maslows theory, job satisfaction has b een approached by some researchers from the perception of need fulllment (Kuhlen, 1963 Worf, 1970 Conrad et al., 1985). The fulfillment of job relate needs lead to increase satisfaction as individual moves up in the hierarchy to the highest level. An individual who reaches the self-realization will continue in his job and becomes more(prenominal) than efficient and productive, whereas unfulfilled needs will lead to poor performance less productivity, work colligate stress and eventually job dissatisfaction which ability result in turnover.Herzberg Motivation-Hygiene theory (1959)Herzberg presented a dual factor theory. He uses the needs satisfaction to explain job satisfaction. He believed that satisfaction and dissatisfaction were reprinting and un link. Intrinsic factors called motivators (i.e. think to the nature and experience of performing work) were found to be job satisers and included achievement, reference, work itself and responsibility and similar to the growth n eeds of Maslows hierarchy. Extrinsic factors called hygiene factors were found to be job dissatisers and included organizational policy, administration, supervision, salary, interpersonal relations and working conditions to the deficiency needs of Maslow. However, the distinction between motivators and hygiene was not back up by many researches (Cronin-1977 Everly and Falcione, 1976 Gangadhraiah, et al.1990 Hutto Davis, 1989 Joiner, Johnson Crokrean, 1981 Koelbel, 1988 Munro, 1983 Simpson, 1985).Cavanagh (1992 cited in Burnard et al., 1999) far-famed that these theories attempt to specify particular needs that must be met or values that must be attained (p. 705) if an individual is to be satisfied at work.Figure 1 (Maslows and Herzbergs Ideas Compared, cited in Tiffany Jordan, undated)Vrooms Expectancy theory of Motivation (1964)Vroom predicts that effort lead to increased performance (Expectancy), and performance lead to valued rewards ( slavishity) and then these values are p laced on outcomes (Valence), all three are required for positive motivation. If either of these factors were absent, performance will be altered to zero (Suliman, 2001). However several researches have supported the principles of the theory (Campbell Pritchard, 1976, Hollenback, 1979, Mitchell, 1974). However, questions remain to which extent an employee can increase his/her efforts about the agree organizational structure and decision making processes needed to fulfill the expectations of workers.(Expectancy possibility of Motivation (Undated), cited in Arrod, http//www.arrod.co.uk/archive/concept_vroom.php)Definitions of Job Satisfaction based on the theoriesJob satisfaction is the affective orientation that an employee has towards his or her work (Price, 2001). shadow (1997) summarized the following facets of job satisfaction appreciation, communication, co-workers, fringe benets, job conditions, nature of the work itself, the nature of the organization itself, an organization s policies and procedures, profit, personal growth, promotion opportunities, recognition, security and supervision.DentitionsRelated TheoryThe individual matching of personal needs to the perceived potential of the occupation for satisfying those needs (Kuhlen, 1963)Maslows human needs theory (Maslow, 1954Need fulllment, that is, whether or not the job met the employees physical and psychological needs for the things within the work situation (Worf, 1970)A match between what individuals perceive they need and what rewards they perceive they receive from their jobs (Conrad et al., 1985)A function of satisfaction with the different elements of the job (Herzberg 1959)Herzberg motivation-hygiene theory (Herzberg, 1959)All the feelings that an individual has about his job (Gruneberg, 1976)Focus on cognitive process (Spector, 1997)The affective orientation that an employee has towards his or her work (Price, 2001)(Table 1, Dentitions of job satisfaction, Hong Lu, While, A., Barriball, K. ,(2004)C. introductory Research ReviewC. Previous Research ReviewLocke (1976) defined job satisfaction as a pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of ones job or job experience. That is, it is the discrepancy between what an employee values and what the situation provides. Job satisfaction is a complex phenomenon. The current global shortage of nurses places of interest the importance of understanding the effect and interrelationships of the factors that contribute to nurses dissatisfaction and consequently turnover so that healthcare organizations may implement strategies that jock to retain nurses.Sources of nurses job satisfactionSatisfaction has been found to be related to performance within the work environment (Landeweerd and Boumans, 1988, cited in Burnard et al., 1999), so it is not amazing that the notion of job satisfaction has gained much attention. Researchers have essay to identify the different variables of job satisfaction, measure the significance of each variable and examine what effect these variables have on the productivity of the employee (Burnard et al., 1999). A renewing of quantitative and qualititative studies have been done on the sources of job satisfaction among nurses and here are the most important findingsAiken et al. (2001) found in his global study in a sampling of 43,329 nurses working in adult great hospitals that job dissatisfaction among nurses was highest in the United States (41%) followed by Scotland (38%), England (36%), Canada (33%) and Germany (17%). One third of nurses in England and Scotland and more than one fth in the United States have intent to quit their job within 12 months of data collection. More striking, however, was that 27-54% of nurses less than 30 years of age intended to quit within 12 months of data collection in all countries. Opportunities for the development were the reason behind the satisfaction of the nurses in Germany (61%) while salary was the satisfier for the nurses in USA (57%) and Canada (69%).Similarly, Adamson et al. (1995) found that British nurses were more dissatised than Australian nurses. He pointed that the poor insight of nonrecreational status, insufficient relationship with hospital management system and improper working environment, were found in British more than Australian nurses. Professional organization and work design, conict between the newly gained experience during training and the available one. Furthermore, escape of communication between nurses and physicians, feeling of being not prise by other related health professionals, hospital managers and physicians were a concern to the British nurses. Nevertheless, the perception of autonomy by the Australian and British nurses was well the same.Eventually Tovey and Adams (1999) came up with the main sources of nurses dissatisfaction working interactions, in the first place those with administration, shortage of staff, professional concerns about poor standar ds of care and external work pressure. Nolan et al. (1998) found that level of job satisfaction had remained stable. They further found in a sample of 518 nurses that 35% of nurses reported reduction in their level of satisfaction and 69% drop in their morality. Price (2002), using the satisfaction scale of Mueller and McCloskeys (1990a, b) in a sample of 141 nurses found that (58%) were generally satised with their job. Highest satisfaction was related to co-workers and extrinsic rewards and most dissatisfaction was with the amount of control and responsibility they had and with professional opportunities. Nurses were most satised with annual leave, nursing peers and hours worked (79%, 78% and 76% of respondents) and dissatisfied with hire for working weekends and control over work conditions and childcare facilities (55%, 55% and 46% of respondents. Using the same scale, Wang (2002) found that Chinese nurses were mostly dissatised with pay and job promotion.Finally, nurses job sa tisfaction is very essential to organizations as levels of job satisfaction would globally impact the nursing workforce. Sources of job satisfaction are relatively similar, e.g., physical working setting, relations with fellow workers and managers, salary, promotion, job security, responsibility, the recognition from managers and working hours.Effects of job satisfaction of nurses on absenteeism, burnout, turnover and heading to quitResearchers have generally found that satisfied employees are more productive and committed to their jobs, whereas dissatisfied ones experience absenteeism, grievances and turnover (Smith 1996, cited in Alamri, 2001).Matrunola, (1996) did not find any solid relationship between job satisfaction and abscentism in a small sample of 34 nurses which makes its generalization difficult. Borda and Norman (1997) noted a signi pietism positive relationship between job satisfaction and intent to stay and negative relationships between job satisfaction and often ness of 1 day absence and short-term absence. Sius (2002) indicates that job satisfaction was an important predictor of abscentism. Job dissatisfaction is consistently linked to high levels of stress, burn-out or mental and physical exhaustion (Blegen et al. 1993, Adams Bond 2000, Aiken et al. 2002). Keel (1993) cited in Tzeng 2002), indicated that burnout affects mainly nurses, physicians, social workers and teachers. Burnout seems to be caused by stressful working conditions, disproportional-high efforts (time, emotional involvement, and empathy) and dissatisfaction with jobs. For the goals of great(p) professional stress and improved satisfaction, social support and improved squad cooperation could protect nurses against burnout.There is a vast body of the literature linking job satisfaction in nursing and turnover.Job dissatisfaction has been frequently identied as the reason why nurses leave their jobs (Lum et al., 1998 Tzeng, 2002). Tzeng (2002) has also noted that factors such as indirect working environment (hospitals policies, benets, leisure activities, housing, parking, and vacation policy), salary and promotion as very important but strongly dissatisfying and indicated that job satisfaction is a predictor of turnover. A study conducted in the United States revealed that dissatisfied nurses were 65% more likely to have intent to quit compared to their satisfied colleagues (Shields Ward, 2001 cited in Masroor A.M., Fakir M. J., 2010).Gray and Philips (1994) Examined turnover rates and relationship to age and length of service in 342,000 employees from nine staff separates in topic Health Service (NHS) and explored that annual turnover rate among all NHS staff 13.6% higher turnover among full-time than part-time turnover declines with age, are high in rst year of service, remains high in second year before declining. Leveck and Jones (1996) indicated that experience on unit and professional job satisfaction were predictors of staff nurse retenti on job stress and clinical service were predictors of quality of care. The variable contributing the most was management style. While Davidson et al (1997) in a sample of 736 hospital nurses cited that intent to leave predicted by perception of little promotion, high routinization, low decision latitude and poor communication. Lum et al (1998) found among 361 RNs in neonatal and pediatric Intensive carefulness Unit that Job satisfaction has indirect and organizational commitment has direct effect on intent to quit. Boyle et al (1999) recognized that managers position power and inuence over work coordination had direct link to intent to stay. Instrumental communication, autonomy, and group cohesion decreased job stress and thus increased job satisfaction. Job satisfaction was directly linked with intent to stay. Furthermore, Hemingway and metalworker (1999) discovered that high work pressure was predictive of greater component part conict and role equivocalness, and of more stress from heavy workload. In addition, poor supervisor support was signicantly related to greater stress from heavy workload, and lack of autonomy was related to higher role ambiguity. Larabee et al (2003) proposed that major predictor of intent to leave was job dissatisfaction, and the major predictor of job satisfaction was psychological empowerment. Predictors of psychological empowerment were hardiness, transformational leadership style, nurse/ physician collaboration, and group cohesion. Strachota et al (2003)identified the following reasons hours worked better job opportunity family poor pay and benets poor staffing unsupportive management unacceptable work environment work stress no opportunity for approach. Duffield et al (2004) added the following causes leaving related to work aspects, structural aspects, professional issues, team support, salary and prestige, employer care, and legal concerns. turnover has many consequences such as mean cost per RN turnover was $10,198, rangi ng from $6,886 to $15,152(Jones, 1990b, Waldman et al, 2004)), poor patient satisfaction, risk of infection increased almost 30% and the risk of hospitalization increased more than 80% (Zimmerman et al, 2002). Leiter et al. (1998)cited in Tzeng,2002) conclude that patients, who stayed on wards where nursing staff felt more exhausted or more frequently expressed their end to quit, were less satised with their medical care. This study conrmed the importance of understanding nurses job satisfaction and intention to quit as both concepts, which would contribute to patient outcomes. Moreover, both nurses job satisfaction and patient satisfaction have been identied in the Nursing Report Card for Acute Care (American Nurses Association, 1995) as two of the important nursing quality outcome indicators. Lee et al.s (2003) showed that the most common reasons for nurses turnover were work overload, rotating shifts and conict in interpersonal relationships. A total of 24%, 15% and 35% of vari ance regarding depersonalization, emotional exhaustion and personal accomplishment, respectively, was explained by the individual characteristics, job stress and personal resources were explained by the predictor variables. bout to, Cavanagh (1990) indicated that job satisfaction was the determining factor of turnover which could be predicted by kinship responsibility, promotion, pay and influential communication skills. Wu et al (2000), found a positive and significant relation between the job stress and intention to quit. This was also confirmed in Yin and Yangs (2002) meta-analysis who revealed that the strongest factors for nurse turnover were job satisfaction, autonomy, advancement opportunity, job stress, pay, group cohesion, marital status and teachingal level.To sum up, researches from miscellaneous countries indicate that job satisfaction is a signicant predictor of nursing absenteeism, burnout, turnover and intention to quit the organization and nursing profession.Relate d factors to job satisfaction of nursesBlegens (1993) meta-analysis found a strong connection between job satisfaction, stress and organizational commitment. Seven variables had strong correlational statisticss communication with supervisor, autonomy, recognition, routinization, communication with peers, fairness and locus of control and four variables had very weak correlations age, years of experience, education and professionalism. A causal model of job satisfaction has been tested in the studies of Chu et al.s (2003) among 308 Taiwanese nurses and Seo et al.s (2004) among 353 South Korean nurses, respectively. In this model 11 indie variables included job involvement, positive affectivity, negative affectivity, autonomy, distributive justice, procedural justice, job stress (role ambiguity, role conict, and workload and resource inadequacy, pay, promotional chances, routinization and social support .Moreover, four of twelve structural variables (workload, supervisory support, r outinization, and pay) were found to have signicant net effects on satisfaction. Chu et al. (2003) found that six variables had significant impact on job satisfaction routinization, positive affectivity, involvement, negative affectivity, role ambiguity, supervisor support which explain 45% of the variance in satisfaction. Whereas Seo et al. (2004) found seven variables had statistically signicant effects on job satisfaction positive affectivity, supervisory support, pay, routinization, negative affectivity, workload and job opportunity and he found reasonable fit between the casual model and data all the variables explained 53% of the variance.Interestingly, Packard and Motowidlo (1987) correlated job satisfaction with depression, hostility, subjective stress, frequency of stressful events, intensity of stressful events and anxiety. Knoop (1995) indicated that organizational commitment is positively related to job satisfaction among nurses, satisfaction with work, promotion opportu nity, supervision, co-workers and pay among Canadian nurses. organisational commitment refers to identication with and loyalty to the organization and its goals (Blau and Boal, 1987) which Mowday et al. (1979). Commitment is characterized by three factors a strong belief in and an acceptance of the organizations goals and values a willingness to defend considerable effort on behalf of the organization and a strong thirst to maintain membership in the organization (Blegen, 1993 Al-Aameri, 2000). Fang, (2001) agreed with the studies of (Blegen, 1993 Al-Aameri, 2000) and cited that job satisfaction was significantly and positively related to organizational commitment, professional commitment, and negatively related to job stress. Organizational commitment has an incremental effect on a professionals intention to leave the organization (Blau and Lunz, 1998). Enhancing professional commitment in nursing has the potential to produce benets for both the individual and their organization (Cohen, 1998 Cohen, 1999). Furthermore, professional commitment is positively related to the job satisfaction of nurses (Lu et al., 2000 Jones, 2000).Lu et al., (2002) indicates that professional commitment is more effective in predicting intention to leave the nursing profession than intention to leave the organization at 9.2 %. Lu et al., (2002) added that Job satisfaction was more effective in predicting intent to leave the organization than intention to leave the nursing profession at 8 %. Moreover, role conict and ambiguity are signicantly related to job stress, organizational commitment, job satisfaction and intentions to leave the nursing profession (Rosse and Rosse, 1981).Dailey (1990) found that most signicant predictor of intention to quit was experienced job induced stress symptoms. However, Mitchells (1994) in United State study found that there was not a signicant linear association between a nurses job satisfaction and the correlation between work role values and actua l work roles. Yet, the nding that workload has the second largest impact emphasizes the relative importance of job stress in determining levels of nurses job satisfaction. This nding is consistent with the results obtained in other empirical studies which have shown that the job stress variables have negative impacts on job satisfaction (Mathieu, 1990, 1991
Thursday, March 28, 2019
Maya Deren and Her Successful Integration of Dance and FilmThe topic of dance films could non be discussed without mentioning Maya Deren. A dancer, ethnographer, philosopher, and visual poet, Maya Deren is said to have minded(p) birth to the American avant-garde film movement. Born Eleanora Derenkovskaya on April 29, 1917, in Kiev, Ukraine, (the year of the Russian Revolution), she was a revolutionary innovator from the st maneuver. She was born to her making love mother Marie Fiedler and father Solomon Derenskovsky. In 1922 her family left the Soviet Union for America. They colonised in siege of Syracuse, New York. By 1928, her father had shortened their name to Deren. Mayas childhood name was Elinka. As a young girl, Elinka hated her legs. She had a rather stalky build for American standards, and because of this, she loved to wear boots. At be on ten she gave herself the nickname of Bootsy. Little did she know where those stalky legs would take her. Deren attended Syracuse Un iversity to study journalism. This is where her interest in film was first sparked. During this period, she began to write poetry, served as the national secretary of the Young Peoples Socialist League, and met her first save, Gregory Bardacke. Although her marriage did not last dour, Gregory helped her to develop a strong interest in politics, an scope in which she would continue to participate. Deren completed her B.A. at New York University in 1936. She because went on to earn an M.A. in English literature from Smith College in 1939.It was her next move that introduced her to the world of dance. She found a secretarial agate line working for African American dancer and choreographer Katherine Dunham. With Dunham, Deren toured with the road show of cabin in the Sky. While on tour, she met her next husband and life long inspiration, Czech filmmaker, Alexander Hackenschmied, later known as Alexander Hammid. It is her trade union with Hammid that allowed her to combine her inte rests and begin to create films. From an inheritance she earned from her father, she bought a second-hand 16mm Bolex camera. With this camera, Deren and her husband created her first and most famous film Meshes of the Afternoon in 1943. By this time, Elenora had shortened her name to Maya, the word for veil of illusion in Hindoo mythology. Deren went on to create many more avant-garde films integrating dance, mise-en-scene, and the art of montage.
Beowulf and Grendel The Hall Heorot Is Attacked By Grendel Beowulf is one of the greatest live epos poems. It was composed by Germanic people more than twelve hundred years ago. Although it is written in Old English, it deals with the Scandinavian forebears of the Anglo-Saxons, the Danes and the Geats. This epic poem concerns itself with Christianity, internal and external evils, and the warriors defeating monsters. The first passageway of this drool essentially describes the building of Heorot. Hrothgar, decides to build a Val planetary housea-type of sanctuary for his warriors that he names Heorot, or the Hall of the Hart (deer hall). This is in the first main passage of the story of Beowulf and this is the first place we find the theme of internal versus external evil. The passage implies that internal evil will ultimately destroy the hall, rather than universe attacked by monsters The hall stood tall, high and wide-gabled it would wait fierce flames of vengeful wak en the time was not yet at hand for sword-hate between son-in-law and father-in-law to energise after murderous rage. (Norton 28) This foreshadows the internal evil that will destroy the Danes. other theme in this story is the theme of men versus monsters. This theme comes to set out when Grendel is described The creature of evil, grim and fierce, was quickly ready, savage and cruel, and seized from their rest thirty thanes.(Norton 28) Heorot is a drinking hall, where warriors gather for parties and to get inebriated. Heorot is a creation of shade made by Hrothgar, for men to gather as a brush place and a place to sleep. Hrothgar builds the biggest hall ever made. Grendel then attacks the hall for twelve winters straight, destroying more and more men every night with no remorse, and the men are afraid to sleep in the hall, thinking that maybe Grendel will eat them. Grendel is a ruthless caniball I think that if he may accomplish it, unafraid he will feed on the folk of t he Geats in the war-hall as he has often done on the flower of men.(Norton 32-33) Grendel is a savage, and he ruthlessly eats his victims. The Hall Heorot is a drinking hall, and most of the warriors stand no chance against Grendel. They are drunk and are not able to attack Grendel.
Wednesday, March 27, 2019
Baptist Church Visit I decided to go to a Baptist Church here in Miami. The reason that I chose Coral lay Baptist Church was because most Baptist Churches that I called here in Miami had the process in Spanish but Coral Park Baptist had an face service as well. I went to the eleven oclock service on Sunday. The wholly church itself was pretty big. There is the main temple that has the regular service in Spanish and then there is a whole otherwise building that has separate classrooms where the English service is held and other Sunday civilise type classes are held.There were not as many bulk in the English service as there were in the Spanish service because the Spanish service is the focal point of the church. In the English service there were about 40 people present. Everyone that was there was dressed(p) normal. Normal meaning a polo style shirt or a long sleeve shirt with nice pants for the men and the women were also dressed with semi-formal clothes. Even the preacher was dressed in semi-formal clothes. The image that I saw the most while my visit was the hide but the cross did not have Jesus on it. It was middling the cross by itself. The scriptures that were read came from the bible. They provided me with a bible there so I could follow along with any of the passages that were read. There were no symbols on the bible. The title of the bible read, The Holy Bible. There werent a lot of images during the service that caught my eye. The only one that I...
The definition of a sorrowful character is someone who is so worthless or obnoxious as to rouse moral indignation. This by all odds fits the description of some of the characters in the sec Glengarry Glen Ross, by David Mamet.Glengarry Glen Ross is a play about real estate salesmen who argon basically conmen that al steerings on the button work toward getting the compete closed, whether or non the customer is golden with the deal. They fit the stereotype of car salesmen, always trying to get the deal closed with the customer walking away feeling that they paid way too much. Dave Moss is one such salesman, except that he is the most despicable among the entire group. In a scene of the play this guy real has the guts to try to blackmail one of his married person salesmen a fellow friend. The conversation starts out as would any among friends, bsing about work or not getting paid enough. Then Dave slowly introduces the topic that their bosses are greedy and selfish, to plant the seed of distrust. They talk about this for a bit but then get around to what somebody should do. Dave says that someone should manufacture them back, and this leads into robbing the office. He talks about the logistics of this, that they would get a dollar cardinal for each lead and such, but disarms the tense situation, saying that we were just lecture about it. But he slowly leads into that he is actually prep on it, and wants Aaronow in on it. He then says that if he does it and Aaronow isnt in then he would call him as an accomplice, trying to contain him into helping a fellow friend. The best part of this blackmail is that not only is he press release to rob his workplace, hes going to sell out to another team of salesmen.
Tuesday, March 26, 2019
Mankinds abomination Exposed in Lord of the Flies Despite the progression of refining and societys attempts to suppress mans darker side, moral depravity proves both indestructible and inescap commensurate setback to culturally embraced views of humanistic tendencies towards goodness, distributively individual is susceptible to his base, innate instincts. In William Goldings Lord of the Flies, seemingly innocent schoolboys evolve into bloodthirsty savages as the potential evil within them emerges. Their regression into savagery is ironically paralleled by an intensify fear of evil, and it culminates in several brutal slays as well as a frenzied manhunt. The graphic consequence of the boys unrestrained barbarity, emphasized by the backdrop of an external war, exigently explores mankinds potential for evil. Dismissing the detonation of an atom bomb and the affirmable deaths of their parents as merely an unusual problem (14), the schoolboys selfishly indulge in t heir lush jungle environs. The overwhelming glamour which spreads over them (25) momentarily eclipses their arouse need for domination. At first, the boys express this necessity through the seemingly barren heaving of rocks and the belittling of piggy, who is physically inferior. Had these actions occurred in the boys English homeland, they would have been genuine as ordinary,childish behavior. However, under the guise of innocent excitement, the boys derive an unimaginably blood-red pleasure (18) from exercising control over living things (61). Ominously, their craving for ply is a presage for the blood that is to be shed. This blood which had initially been so unbearable (31) is now lusted after it compels Jack... ...lightenment is a condemnation rather than a liberation, because the knowledge of evil entrust forever remain as a scar upon his mind. Now that Ralph truly understands the darkness of mans heart (202), he will recognize it in all its forms and di sguises, falling heir to Simons role of the bearer of truth and condemnation. The constant possibility that he may succumb to home(a) evil may instill Ralph with an further sense of anxiety and despair. This excruciation marks the end of his innocence (202), and Ralph will never be able to return to his former state of carefree happiness. Only death, the end to each individuals experience of the human condition the same death that liberated Simon and Piggy can free Ralph from the enlightenment and curse of his insight. Work Cited Golding, William. Lord of the Flies. mod York Harcourt, 1962.
Forty long time ago, Neil Armstrong landed on the woolgather on July 20, 1969, opening a gateway of possibilities. It was the beginning of a saucy age of exploration. After Neil Armstrongs landing, the US spent forty more(prenominal) years on space exploration. This lead to the US spending billions of tax income payers dollars on satellites, visits to Mars and the Moon, and launching numerous rockets into space. However, recently the US has been forced to focus on other issues such as national security, depleting economy, and many a(prenominal) others. With all of these issues happening at once, the US is having trouble figuring show up how much funding should be put into programs like NASA. Although these issues are important, we moldiness not sacrifice our knowledge for exploration in exchange for merely national issues. Instead we have to deal with the reality of world events, and we should not let terrorism set the agenda. H. G. Wells said many years ago that human history becomes more and more a hunt down between education and catastrophe (Dick). As a nation we mustiness take care of our country but we almost expand our knowledge. identical the early explorers, the actions of todays explorers will influence the next genesis as we continue to explore the final frontier.From 1405-1433, Commander Zheng He explored the sea representing the Ming Dynasty (1368 - 1644) of China. Sailing crossways the Indian Ocean he traveled across East Africa, Makkah, and the Persian Gulf. During his voyages he traded with the foreigners and brought back giraffes, lions, ostriches and leopards for the Chinese emperor in exchange for stones, ivory and dyestuffs. Zheng Hes journeys in China change magnitude Chinas resources, foreign affairs, and military power. However after his expiration in the year 1433, the Chines... ...dDavis, Rebecca Harding. Life in the Iron Mills. New York The womens rightist Press at The City University of New YorkDick, Steven J. The Impor tance of Exploration. NASA. 22 November, 2007. 18 October, 2009Famous Chinese Explorers Zheng He. Ancient China. 2009. 18 October, 2009.Kinzer, Stephen. Overthrow. New York Times Books.Mel-O-Toons Christopher Columbus. Youtube. Youtube.1960. Web. 18 October, 2009.Poirot. Zheng He and Ming China The Lone Mariner and His Times. All Empires Online History Community. 2009. 18 October, 2009.Rosenberg, Jennifer. 1900-Boxer Rebellion. About.com. 2009. 29 October, 2009.Standard, David E. American Holocaust. New York Oxford University Press. 1992Zheng He. Youtube, Youtube, 1 June, 2007. Web. 18 October, 2009.Zheng He (1371-1433), the Chinese Muslim Admiral. Islam for Today. 2009.18 October, 2009
Monday, March 25, 2019
Home constitute The union of stationwork is and has been just ridiculous, my child give the sackt learn a real life, unrivalled pargonnt complained in a tame district survey. There have been nights where we have been up until 12 or 1am because my child is still workings on some school assignment. Homework is stressful and has no domineering outcomes it never raises your grade, it has little educational worth, and it ties up teachers time is marking it rectify taking time away from more effective lessons. Homework should non be allowed in schools being that it is reasonless, stresses students and has little educational value. many an(prenominal) students in the United States believe that cooking is a waste of their time and does not positively affect their test grades. They also feel that homework is degenerate and a complete waste of their time. They constantly find themselves coming home after a long day of school, only to remember that school hasnt necessarily left them. Homework ends up being through with(p) in a hurry, by students fighting fatigue, and poor quality work is produced. Worse still, students who have been up late trying to finish kill their homework, then come tired into school the next day, and therefore be less ready to learn. Setting homework does little to develop nifty study skills. It is hard to check whether the homework students produce is really their own. some(a) students have always copied off others or got their parents to help them. plainly instantly there is so much material available on the profit that teachers can never be sure. It would be better to have a mixture of activities in the classroom which help students to develop a unscathed range of skills, including independent learning. Homework produces a large amount of pointless ... ...dents almost never want to do homework, so they end up doing it the next day, the period before the assignment is due, by either write off one of their classmates or getting answers online. Students actually prefer to do homework with a buddy or partner so they can at least have a little fun with it. But by no means does homework teach students to become more independent.Homework has been a large controversy over the past a couple of(prenominal) years in many school districts throughout the United States. Many schools support homework, while some schools dont assign homework to their students. Yet studies show that homework or not, the test scores are generally equal. And sometimes, homework can bring down a students regulate testing grades. Homework assignments are pointless work that brings stress, anxiety and no room for social life and family time among the student body.